Updating a JProgressBar

This is a “simple” example of how to update a progress bar in a Swing application.

package org.javachannel;
import javax.swing.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
/**
 * Created by odinsbane on 9/22/14.
 *
 * This is a quick example of a progress bar that updates.
 *
 * This code is distributed as is; without warranty; or guarantee. It can
 * be freely used, modified and distributed without attribution.
 */
public class ProgressBarExample {
  ExecutorService service = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
  /**
   * Sets up the gui, which is just a JFrame, JButton and a JProgressBar.
   */
  private void buildGui() {
    JFrame frame = new JFrame("progress bar example");
    final JButton start = new JButton("start");
    final JProgressBar progress = new JProgressBar();
    start.addActionListener(
        new ActionListener() {
          @Override
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent evt) {
            start.setEnabled(false);
            //starts long running task off of EDT.
            service.submit(new Runnable() {
              public void run() {
                for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
                  //the portion of work.
                  try {
                    Thread.sleep(10);
                  } catch (InterruptedException e1) {
                    //this might be a good spot to quit working.
                    e1.printStackTrace();
                  }
                  //update the progress bar on the EDT.
                  final int j = i;
                  EventQueue.invokeLater(new Runnable() {
                    public void run() {
                      progress.setValue(j);
                    }
                  });
                }
                //work finished.
                EventQueue.invokeLater(new Runnable() {
                  public void run() {
                    progress.setValue(100);
                    start.setEnabled(true);
                  }
                });
              }
            });
          }
        }
    );
    frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
    frame.setLayout(new FlowLayout());
    frame.add(start);
    frame.add(progress);
    frame.pack();
    frame.setVisible(true);
  }
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    ProgressBarExample example = new ProgressBarExample();
    //ALL gui work should be managed on the EDT.
    EventQueue.invokeLater(new Runnable() {
      public void run() {
        example.buildGui();
      }
    });
  }
}

In this example, the ‘start’ button begins a ‘long-running’ task. The task is started using an ActionListener, which starts the task on the Event Dispatch Thread (EDT). So the first thing to do is to ‘send’ the task to another thread, this is done by creating a Runnable and submitting the Runnable to the ExecutorService service.
As the task runs the progress bar needs to be updated; this should be performed on the EDT. By creating a new Runnable and submitting via EventQueue.invokeLater(), the task will be executed when Swing gets a chance, and the working thread will continue without waiting.
A small caveat is that the ‘start’ button is disabled during execution, and enabled when the task is completed. This is because when we fire the task on another thread, the EDT is not blocked and you could press the button again rather than waiting.
These concepts can still be applied to JavaFX type applications, although the environment’s obviously different and will involve some important changes – for example, you’d use Platform.runLater() instead of EventQueue.invokeLater().
Here’s an example of an equivalent program, using JavaFX instead. The layout isn’t an exact match, even with the equivalence of controls, thanks to the Scene not being packed like the JFrame is.
This example code relies on Java 8 and the use of lambdas, which shortens the code but remains equivalent:

package org.javachannel;
import javafx.application.Application;
import javafx.application.Platform;
import javafx.scene.Scene;
import javafx.scene.control.Button;
import javafx.scene.control.ProgressBar;
import javafx.scene.layout.FlowPane;
import javafx.stage.Stage;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
public class JavaFXProgressBarExample extends Application {
  ExecutorService service = Executors.newSingleThreadExecutor();
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    launch(args);
  }
  @Override
  public void start(Stage primaryStage) throws Exception {
    primaryStage.setTitle("progress bar example");
    ProgressBar progress = new ProgressBar();
    progress.setProgress(0.0);
    Button start = new Button();
    start.setText("start");
    start.setOnAction(event -> {
      service.submit(() -> {
        Platform.runLater(() -> start.setDisable(true));
        for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++) {
          //the portion of work.
          try {
            Thread.sleep(10);
          } catch (InterruptedException e1) {
            //this might be a good spot to quit working.
            e1.printStackTrace();
          }
          final double j = i / 100.0;
          Platform.runLater(() -> progress.setProgress(j));
        }
        Platform.runLater(() -> progress.setProgress(1.0));
        Platform.runLater(() -> start.setDisable(false));
      });
    });
    FlowPane root = new FlowPane();
    root.getChildren().add(start);
    root.getChildren().add(progress);
    primaryStage.setScene(new Scene(root, 250, 40));
    primaryStage.show();
  }
}

Tomcat and JNDI

Let’s consider the standard baseline Java EE application: it’s a web application, with some kind of framework, using JDBC or something that wraps it.
In canonical Java EE form, it would be a JSF front end and request routing mechanism, with JPA as the data framework, with resources acquired via JNDI. (Note: “canonical Java EE form” doesn’t imply in any way that this is what people actually do, because normally people avoid JSF like the plague.)
With Tomcat, however, you are more likely to see Spring MVC or Struts 2, with Hibernate or MyBatis, talking directly to the database with an embedded database driver and connection pool.

This is anecdata with respect to the typical Tomcat deployment. We don’t pretend otherwise, and neither should you – nor should you be offended that we see this sort of thing so often that the anecdata seems pretty valid, even without formal substantiation.

One of the problems is that while Tomcat has a proper JNDI container, it’s not very easy to use. It even has documentation on setting up a JNDI datasource (which you should be doing) but it’s not complete; I followed the documentation and it did not work.
I’m not even sure why it didn’t work. With that said, I created an example that does work, and it’s on github.
So let’s walk through this sample project. I’m going to include a JNDI resource, and a servlet that uses it; the servlet will show some metadata about the JDBC driver acquired from JNDI, which should be enough of a smoke test that it validates the deployment.
The container I’m using is Tomcat 8.
My Maven configuration is quite simple, and comes directly from a Maven archetype, with the addition of the database driver and the modification of the Java version to 1.8. (Changes are shown in bold.)

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <parent>
        <artifactId>examples-parent</artifactId>
        <groupId>org.javachannel.examples</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <groupId>org.javachannel.examples</groupId>
    <artifactId>servlet-jndi-example</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>war</packaging>
    <name>servlet-jndi-example</name>
    <properties>
        <endorsed.dir>${project.build.directory}/endorsed</endorsed.dir>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
    </properties>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax</groupId>
            <artifactId>javaee-web-api</artifactId>
            <version>7.0</version>
            <scope>provided</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hsqldb</groupId>
            <artifactId>hsqldb</artifactId>
            <version>2.3.2</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>3.1</version>
                <configuration>
                    <source>1.8</source>
                    <target>1.8</target>
                    <compilerArguments>
                        <endorseddirs>${endorsed.dir}</endorseddirs>
                    </compilerArguments>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>2.3</version>
                <configuration>
                    <failOnMissingWebXml>false</failOnMissingWebXml>
                </configuration>
            </plugin>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
                <artifactId>maven-dependency-plugin</artifactId>
                <version>2.6</version>
                <executions>
                    <execution>
                        <phase>validate</phase>
                        <goals>
                            <goal>copy</goal>
                        </goals>
                        <configuration>
                            <outputDirectory>${endorsed.dir}</outputDirectory>
                            <silent>true</silent>
                            <artifactItems>
                                <artifactItem>
                                    <groupId>javax</groupId>
                                    <artifactId>javaee-endorsed-api</artifactId>
                                    <version>7.0</version>
                                    <type>jar</type>
                                </artifactItem>
                            </artifactItems>
                        </configuration>
                    </execution>
                </executions>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>
</project>

All that’s well and good; now let’s take a look at our servlet, the thing that serves as our smoke test. We’re not including the import or package statements, for brevity.

@WebServlet(name = "example", urlPatterns = "/exampleservlet")
public class ExampleServlet extends HttpServlet {
    @Resource(name = "java:comp/env/jdbc/hsqldb")
    DataSource dataSource;
    @Override
    protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest req, HttpServletResponse resp)
            throws ServletException, IOException {
        PrintWriter out = resp.getWriter();
        resp.setContentType("text/plain");
        try (Connection conn = dataSource.getConnection()) {
            DatabaseMetaData dmd = conn.getMetaData();
            out.printf("We hit the servlet.%nCan we get a data source? %s%n"
                    + "   (instance is %s)%n",
                    dataSource == null ? "no" : "yes",
                    dataSource == null ? "null" : dataSource.toString());
            out.printf("Database version: %d.%d%n",
                    dmd.getDatabaseMajorVersion(),
                    dmd.getDatabaseMinorVersion());
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace(out);
        }
    }
}

Note the @Resource in that servlet – it says that the container is responsible for doing a JNDI lookup (using the name “java:comp/env/jdbc/hsqldb“) with the right type (javax.sql.DataSource). We don’t have any other magic to perform… except that we don’t have that name configured anywhere yet.
The way this is done is via a file called context.xml, which – as you might surmise – defines things for a specific context. You can specify contexts in a lot of ways; one way is to modify the container’s main context.xml (which handles global container changes), and you can also modify contexts on a per-host or per-application basis.
Because this is a developer-targeted web application, we’re going to make it an application-specific context; this is going to be held in a resource named /META-INF/context.xml in our deployable WAR file.
Context files are XML, so we need a root node, <Context />, because nothing’s good enough without mixed-case in XML. (Yay, Tomcat!)
What we need to do is define the actual JDBC resource, which is done with the following XML:

<Resource name="jdbc/hsqldb" auth="Container"
          type="javax.sql.DataSource"
          maxTotal="100" maxIdle="30"
          maxWaitMillis="10000"
          username="sa" password=""
          driverClassName="org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver"
          url="jdbc:hsqldb:mem:testdb"/>

This says to use the org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver class as a DataSource, located at the name “jdbc/hsqldb“. In Tomcat, if this is at the web application’s level, it gets placed in the local context (at “java:comp/env/jdbc/hsqldb“, and on deployment, our servlet will have the resource located at that name injected, and we get the exciting output of:

We hit the servlet.
Can we get a data source? yes
   (instance is org.apache.tomcat.dbcp.dbcp2.BasicDataSource@25dc1971)
Database version: 2.3

Now, this isn’t horribly useful, honestly, because it ties the resource directly into the local namespace.
You can (and probably should) put it at the general context.xml (held in $CATALINA_HOME/conf/context.xml), which should be done rarely (because the container needs to be restarted when this file is changed). Then you’d need a ResourceLink that took the global name (which in this example would be “jdbc/hsqldb“) and link it to the local name (“java:comp/env/jdbc/hsqldb“), which would fit the way most Java EE containers would (and should) do it.

Relevant Links

How to execute a group of tasks

Someone on the channel today asked about how to run a series of tasks, with a terminal condition of sorts. Basically, they wanted to run a number of tasks, and know when they were done.
The question was originally built around having a List of results (List<integer>, maybe?), counting the number of results until the number of results matched the number of tasks.
The channel suggested using an ExecutorService, particularly the shutdown() and awaitTermination() methods, with another suggestion being invokeAll() – which seemed particularly apt because the person asking didn’t want to have to build a new ExecutorService over and over again (which the shutdown() call would necessitate, although the cost of doing this shouldn’t be very high.)
Here’s an example with Java 8, of using the invokeAll() to execute a series of tasks; the task is made-up (it basically rolls three six-sided dice to determine a histogram of results, as a callback to Dungeons and Dragons). It has one dependency, on Apache’s commons-lang3.

package org.javachannel.examples.executors;
import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.concurrent.Callable;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.locks.LockSupport;
import java.util.stream.IntStream;
class Worker implements Callable {
    int roll() {
        LockSupport.parkNanos((long) (Math.random() * 10000000));
        return (int) (Math.random() * 6) + 1;
    }
    @Override
    public Integer call() throws Exception {
        return roll() + roll() + roll();
    }
}
public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
        List workerList = new ArrayList<>();
        IntStream.range(0, 100000).forEach(i -> workerList.add(new Worker()));
        ExecutorService service = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        int[] count = new int[19];
        service.invokeAll(workerList).stream().map(f -> {
            try {
                return f.get();
            } catch (Throwable e) {
                return 0;
            }
        }).forEach(m -> count[m]++);
        IntStream.rangeClosed(3, 18).forEach(r -> {
            System.out.printf("%02d %s%n", r, StringUtils.repeat("*", count[r]/100));
        });
    }
}

This code creates a list of tasks, populates it, and then submits all of them in one call (service.invokeAll(workerList)), then uses the Stream API to populate the array of results. It looks a little more complicated than it should because of the lambda to pull the int out of the Future</integer><integer>, which is what return value for call() becomes when it’s submitted to the Executor.
It’s not a perfect example; surely others can come up with better examples. Feel free to submit them!

Returning void type from a method call

Someone on ##java asked about how to return a void value. This is a terrible question, but let’s look at it anyway, just because.
Here’s some example code they asked about, translated:

void foo(boolean bar) {
  if(bar) {
    return baz();
  }
}
void baz() {
  // do stuff here
}

The intent was to call baz() as a replacement for foo()‘s execution; the one with the question didn’t include code after the if() block, but further questions indicated that the remaining part of foo() was to be avoided.
There’s a lot of monstrosity here. The worst is “return baz();“, which won’t compile, and shouldn’t compile; void‘s whole purpose is to avoid being put on the call stack, so “return void” makes no sense.
One way to rewrite this code is obvious:

void foo(boolean bar) {
  if(bar) {
    baz();
    return;
  }
  // extra code goes here,
  // not to be executed if bar is true
}
void baz() {
  // do stuff here
}

This calls baz() and terminates the method execution immediately after. You could also do something else that’s obvious:

void foo(boolean bar) {
  if(bar) {
    baz();
  } else {
    // extra code goes here
  }
}

This has the advantage of a single termination point for the method. From “Code Complete:”

17.1 return

Minimize the number of returns in each routine. It’s harder to understand a routine if, reading it at the bottom, you’re unaware of the possibility that it returned somewhere above.
Use a return when it enhances readability. In certain routines, once you know the answer, you want to return it to the calling routine immediately. If the routine is defined in such a way that it doesn’t require any cleanup, not returning immediately means that you have to write more code.
(Content copied shamelessly from an excellent answer on StackOverflow.)

Initializing arrays of arrays: avoid fill()

A long, long time ago, on a blog far, far away, this horror was posted by someone who really should have known better (and who has since removed this section from the original post):

BTW: Ricky Clarkson pointed out that I missed a golden opportunity to use Arrays.fill() to fill in the “multiple dimensions.” Even here, you get to loop some, but here’s some grin-worthy code:

int[][][] arr = new int[10][10][10];
Arrays.fill(arr[0][0], 5);
Arrays.fill(arr[0], arr[0][0]);
Arrays.fill(arr, arr[0]);

Hey, it works. It’s retarded, but works. 🙂

This… doesn’t work. It actually copies references, so altering any of the deep references changes all of the deep references. You can see this in action with this code:

import java.util.Arrays;
public class ArrayFillBad {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[][] arr = new int[2][4];
        Arrays.fill(arr[0], 5);
        Arrays.fill(arr, arr[0]);
        display(arr);
        arr[1][2] = 1024;
        display(arr);
    }
    private static void display(int[][] arr) {
        for (int[] a1 : arr) {
            String sep = "";
            for (int a2 : a1) {
                System.out.print(sep + a2);
                sep = ", ";
            }
            System.out.println();
        }
        System.out.println();
    }
}

When run, this offers this output:

5, 5, 5, 5
5, 5, 5, 5
5, 5, 1024, 5
5, 5, 1024, 5

See the two new values? Only one is supposed to have been changed.
So what’s happening here? We’re not actually copying array contents, we’re copying array references – so we have multiple copies of one array, copied across each deep reference.
Chances are very good that this is not what you wanted. We can do better than that (where “better” means “actually works,” as opposed to “causes you to fail code reviews.”)
Here’s working code; it’s “uglier” but ugly trumps broken:

public class ArrayFillGood {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        int[][] arr = new int[2][4];
        for (int[] anArr : arr) {
            Arrays.fill(anArr, 8);
        }
        display(arr);
        arr[1][2] = 6;
        display(arr);
    }
private static void display(int[][] arr) {
        for (int[] a1 : arr) {
            String sep = "";
            for (int a2 : a1) {
                System.out.print(sep + a2);
                sep = ", ";
            }
            System.out.println();
        }
        System.out.println();
    }
}

How to access static resources in Java

Your Java app may need access to data that you intend to ship directly with your code and which will not change without a version update. Examples might include a list of countries to show in a country dropdown, or icon images for a web or Swing application. The proper mechanism to access these files is:

YourClass.class.getResource("file.txt");
// or
YourClass.class.getResourceAsStream("file.txt");

This mechanism is built into java and will allow you to store your data files in the same place you store your class files (so, generally, on the classpath, and usually in a jar file). getResource returns a URL instance; many APIs that require a complete resource will accept these. If you wish to read the resource yourself, use getResourceAsStream, which creates an InputStream. (remember to always close it with a try/finally block or @Cleanup!)

Example code

Here’s some example code to read an image icon for Swing:

package example1;
import javax.swing.*;
import java.net.URL;
public class GetResourceExample {
    public static JLabel createPrintIcon() {
        URL printIconUrl =
                GetResourceExample.class.getResource("icons/printer63.png");
        ImageIcon printIcon =
                new ImageIcon(printIconUrl, "Print document");
        return new JLabel(printIcon);
    }
    public static void main(String... args) {
        JFrame frame = new JFrame("GetResourceExample");
        frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(WindowConstants.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
        frame.add(createPrintIcon());
        frame.pack();
        frame.setVisible(true);
    }
}

In the above example, take the place GetResourceExample.class is located , and make sure a subdirectory called icons is also located there, which contains the printer63.png file. GetResourceExample.class is in a directory somewhere on your classpath, or in a jar. printer63.png should be in the same place.
Here’s an example to read a list of all states in the US:

package example2;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.List;
public class PlainJavaStates {
    private static final List<String> states;
    static {
        List<String> out = new ArrayList<>();
        try (InputStream in =
                     PlainJavaStates.class.getResourceAsStream("states.txt")) {
            BufferedReader br =
                    new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in, "UTF-8"));
            for (String line = br.readLine();
                 line != null;
                 line = br.readLine()) {
                if (line.isEmpty() || line.startsWith("#")) continue;
                out.add(line);
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            // RuntimeException is fine; the 'states'
            // file not existing is as likely as your States.class
            // file not existing; your app can crash
            // in the face of corrupt executables, which is what's happened
            // if states.txt isn't here.
            throw new RuntimeException("states.txt cannot be loaded.", e);
        }
        states = Collections.unmodifiableList(out);
    }
    public static List<String> getStates() {
        return states;
    }
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.printf("Number of states: %d%n ", getStates().size());
    }
}

Or, if you use Guava, this becomes even simpler:

package example2;
import com.google.common.base.Charsets;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList;
import com.google.common.io.Resources;
import java.io.IOException;
public class GuavaStates {
    private static final ImmutableList<String> states;
    static {
        try {
            states = ImmutableList.copyOf(
                    Resources.readLines(
                            GuavaStates.class.getResource("states.txt"),
                            Charsets.UTF_8));
        } catch (IOException e) {
            // RuntimeException is fine; the 'states'
            // file not existing is as likely as your States.class
            // file not existing; your app can crash
            // in the face of corrupt executables, which is what's happened
            // if states.txt isn't here.
            throw new RuntimeException("states.txt cannot be loaded.", e);
        }
    }
    public static ImmutableList<String> getStates() {
        return states;
    }
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.printf("Number of states: %d%n ", getStates().size());
    }
}

How do those paths work?

Files are resolved relative to the location of the class file you use as context. In the ‘states’ example, states.txt is supposed to be located in the exact same place in the classpath as PlainJavaStates.class. You can also start this path with a slash to resolve relative to the root of the relevant classpath entry. For example, if your jar file looks like:

/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
/example2/PlainJavaStates.class
/example2/states.txt
/example2/foo/bar.txt
/icons/printer63.png

Then you can get to these files in any of these ways:

PlainJavaStates.class.getResource("states.txt");
PlainJavaStates.class.getResource("foo/bar.txt");
PlainJavaStates.class.getResource("/example2/states.txt");
PlainJavaStates.class.getResource("/example2/foo/bar.txt");
PlainJavaStates.class.getResource("/icons/printer63.png");

Why not files?

You could use FileInputStream to just read files from somewhere, but then you would need to know exactly where your files were. The JVM starts in the ‘working directory’, which may not be the same place your jars or classpath is, and at any rate, this does not work if you ever decide to modularize your application. It is possible to figure out where your jar file is and read from there, but that’s even more effort and easy to do wrong. Why bother?

Why not the other ways to use .getResource / .getResourceAsStream

You may have read about one of these alternate forms:

getClass().getResource(...);
getClass().getResourceAsStream(...);

This is not a good idea; getClass() is dynamic and resolves to the actual class of the instance. If your class is extended by some class that lives in another jar, that means all of a sudden your resources will no longer be found. You may also have read about this alternate form:

ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader().getResource(...);

or:

getClass().getClassLoader().getResource(...);
MyClass.class.getClassLoader().getResource(...);

Do not use those forms either; the Java specification states that the class loader of certain classes can be null. That would mean a NullPointerException will occur. Also, the above forms are needlessly wordier. Just use this one form, there is no reason to use anything else:

MyClass.class.getResource(...);
MyClass.class.getResourceAsStream(...);

How do I get my resource files into my jars?

Eclipse will automatically copy any non-java files that are located in the same place your source files are, to the binary directory, and thus they’ll be found by your app when running it inside your IDE. Eclipse will also package these files along with your compiled code if you tell Eclipse to make jars.
With Maven or Gradle (or any build system that follows Maven’s source directory structure), put your resources in the src/main/resources directory, using the same path structure as in your src/main/java directory. Your build system will ensure your resources and your class files end up together in the same jar file, and that it’ll work out when you tell your build system to run your application.
With Ant or Ant+Ivy, you have to explicitly add your resources. You can use the <copy> task for this, or just list them as an <include> in your <jar> task.
Lastly, you could simply put the place that holds your resource files on the classpath when you start the JVM.


If you’re interested in seeing a working example of the project layout, this site has a zipped maven project available.

Combining two functions into one

Every now and then, you may want to apply one function to only some of the elements in your stream.
This is not so much an example of manipulating streams but rather of combining two functions into one with a predicated dictating which function to apply. In concrete terms, we will create a stream of the integers in the range 0 through 10 (non-inclusive), multiply the even numbers by two and add one, then finally display the result.
The first function, or IntUnaryOperator – as it takes and returns one int – (slightly contrived use of andThen and compose) – looks like this:

IntUnaryOperator f = IntUnaryOperator.identity()
   .andThen(i -> i + 1)
   .compose(i -> 2 * i);

The second function is just the identity:

IntUnaryOperator g = IntUnaryOperator.identity();

The predicate, or just a function taking an int and returning a boolean, was to do something for the even integers:

IntPredicate p = (i -> i % 2 == 0);

One way of combining the two functions is close to the lines of “if the value is this, do that to the value and return it, else do something else to the value and return it:”

IntUnaryOperator m = (i -> (p.test(i)
   ? f.applyAsInt(i)
   : g.applyAsInt(i)));

So now we can map the integers by

IntStream.range(0, 10)
   .map(m)
   .forEach(System.out::println);

However, instead of creating a function taking and returning an integer we could create a function taking an integer and returning a function (which then take and return an integer):

IntFunction<IntUnaryOperator> mm = (i -> p.test(i) ? f : g);

This looks a bit nicer, but applying it to the stream gets messy:

IntStream.range(0, 10)
    .map(i -> mm.apply(i).applyAsInt(i))
    .forEach(System.out::println);

It might make be more sensible to just skip the intermediate step and write:

IntStream.range(0, 10)
    .map(i -> (p.test(i) ? f : g)
    .applyAsInt(i))
 .forEach(System.out::println);

.. which is also a way to get around the problem of prepending or appending the functions f or g:

IntStream.range(0, 10)
    .map(i -> (p.test(i) ? f : g.andThen(j -> j + 100))
       .applyAsInt(i))
 .forEach(System.out::println);

Caveat lector: There are probably much cleaner and more sensible ways to do this. Feel free to suggest alternatives!

Collapsing multiple ints into a long

Every now and then, you may want to collapse multiple values into a long, to use as a key for a Map, for example.
The following code is an example of collapsing three ints into one long. Obvious care should be taken here: three ints don’t actually fit into one long, so the excess bits are just discarded. If we do this, we can afford to use the lowest 20 bits, plus the sign bit, leaving us with a data range of 1,048,576 to -1,048,575.
For each int we take the lower 20 bits:

  input & 0xfffff

…and the sign bit, which we move to position 21:

  (input & Integer.MIN_VALUE) >>> 11

and then combine the two:

  (input & 0xfffff | (input & Integer.MIN_VALUE) >>> 11)

Now, we repeat the process for all our inputs and put them in our long, shifting two of them by 21 and 42 respectively so they don’t overlap:

  long l = 0;
  l |= (long)(input1 & 0xfffff | (input1 & Integer.MIN_VALUE) >>> 11);
  l |= (long)(input2 & 0xfffff | (input2 & Integer.MIN_VALUE) >>> 11) << 21;
  l |= (long)(input3 & 0xfffff | (input3 & Integer.MIN_VALUE) >>> 11) << 42;

If you were to combined a higher amount of things with less bits, this loop version will probably be more concise, courtesy of Maldivia:

  public static long pack(int i1, int i2, int i3) {
    int[] data = new int[] { i1, i2, i3 };
    long l = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
       l |= (long)(data[i] & 0xfffff | (data[i] & Integer.MIN_VALUE) >>> 11) << (i * 21);
    }
    return l;
  }

And to unpack the long back into pieces:

  public static int[] unpack(long l) {
    int[] res = new int[3];
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
       res[i] = (int) (l & 0xfffff);
       if ((l & 0x100000) != 0) {
         res[i] |= 0xfff00000;
       }
       l >>>= 21;
    }
    return res;
  }