Interesting Links – 18 Nov 2016

Today’s apparently a Microsoft edition of the interesting links! Almost everything relates back to them this time…

  • From wyvern: “The Error Model” is an article discussing… exceptions. Exception handling and the “checked or unchecked” question is (still) controversial in Java; article provides some interesting context on error handling approaches, and explains how error handling evolved in Midori (Microsoft’s experimental research OS). A fundamental decision when choosing to make your API throw a checked or unchecked exception is whether or not a particular error is considered fatal or not. This is frequently a murky question: if you’re writing a one-off script, IOException may be fatal, but for a long-lived daemon, it should be handled safely and not rethrown to the top level. While we obviously can’t use Midori’s exact approach in Java, the thought process exhibited is helpful when deciding how to structure your APIs to allow tidy error handling. The whole Midori blog series is worth reading, if you’re looking for more.
  • Microsoft has announced that it is a Linux Foundation platinum member. My, how things have changed…
  • Speaking even more of Microsoft, it looks like they’ve finally open-sourced their SQL Server JDBC driver, and it’s hosted in a Maven repository. Typically, people use jTDS instead, but this is potentially great news; it’s not clear offhand what the advantages are compared to jTDS, but the more options you have, the better, right? Plus, this is another example of Microsoft actually contributing to the larger ecosystem, something many are still not used to. Now, if they could only make SQL Server less of a pain to work with…
  • Finally, stepping off the Microsoft train, user asgs pointed out Simon Ritter‘s “20 Years Of Java Deprecation,” which details the list of accumulated deprecated classes and methods in the Java runtime library. It’s actually a really low number given Java’s maturity (maybe that’s a sign of maturity?) — and it also points out that hardly anything is actually removed, although that will change with Java 9, with a whopping six methods being removed.

Interesting Links, 14 April 2016

  • Natty is a natural language date parser written in Java. The idea is that you feed it corpora like "1984/04/02", "february twenty-eighth", or "3 days from now", and get back a list of potential matching Date objects. It is not designed to pull dates out of natural language – for that you’d want something like OpenNLP – but it might be able to help convert the natural language dates you get from OpenNLP into Java’s Date representations.
  • Scriptus is a Maven plugin that writes the Git version into build properties. It’s not entirely well-documented, but that’s what open source might be able to fix, right?
  • In When Interviews Fail, Ted Neward deconstructs a DZone article (“Can You Call Non-Static Method From a Static?“). It’s not difficult to imagine the activity – after all, this site does it to authors all the time! – but Ted’s especially good at it. In this case, he’s actually trying to dig at the purpose of an interview in the first place – and closes with “what do you really interview for?”, because if you’re interviewing for some grunt who can answer the corner cases, that’s… all you’re going to get.
  • The jOOQ blog asks: “Would We Still Criticise Checked Exceptions, If Java had a Better try-catch Syntax?” History says that yes, people would criticize Java for pretty much anything they can think of, and a few things they can’t. But in this case, it’s talking about potential syntax where the try is optional. It’s not present in a real compiler, and it does have some syntactic clarity to it – but in this author’s opinion, it’s actually hiding some pretty important information (namely, that you’re entering a try/catch block, which is pretty relevant information.)
  • From DZone: Properly Shutting Down An ExecutorService shows us a Spring bean to manage an ExecutorService shutdown. This, in itself, is a good thing. However, the interesting thing is that he wrote this because Tomcat was failing to kill the ExecutorService itself – he’s basically illustrated why doing thread management in a web application is a bad idea. Let the container manage the threads, people. (This has always been in the specification – the apps are not supposed to start threads. Ever. Use message-driven beans, or timers, or a ManagedExecutorService.)

BTW, feel free to send me Java-related (or somewhat Java-related!) links you think are worth retaining!

Interesting Links, 9 Feb 2016

  • From Parks Computing, a short word of advice in “On Recruiting” for the movers and shakers (and those who want to be movers and shakers): “The quality of your company’s software will never exceed the quality of your company’s software developers.”
  • DZone is back with a few interesting posts: “OpenJDK – Is Now the Time?” starts by wondering is OpenJDK is reaching critical mass to the point where it should be considered instead of the standard Oracle JDK. It’s an odd post.
    • It points out that if Google had used OpenJDK instead of Oracle’s libraries, the lawsuit might not have happened (Editor’s note: it might have!). This is a good point.
    • It says that the deployment options might open up, with standard package management instead of a custom update process specific to Java. This is also a good point.
    • It points out that OpenJDK’s performance and scalability is the same as the Oracle JDK. This is… not a good point. The codebases are the same (they’re routinely synchronized: code in one will be in the other eventually.) Oracle’s JDK is effectively OpenJDK with some closed-source libraries, so Oracle’s JVM can write JPEGs natively (and some other features like that.)
    • It also points out community improvements to OpenJDK – “As open source developer’s continue to provide insight into the source code, it is likely that OpenJDK could begin to outperform the version released by Oracle.” Um… since the codebases are the same, that’s not likely to happen much at all.
  • From ##java, cheeser had a beautiful expression of reference equivalence. Someone was asking about how two references (A and B) pointing to the same object work – cheeser said, “If B is your *name*, A would be a nickname. Both of them mean you so anything said to either name or nickname both go to you.
  • Fix PATH environment variable for IntelliJ IDEA on Mac OS X” describes a way for OSX users to provide the OS’s PATH to the popular IDE. It turns out that programs installed via brew aren’t necessarily available to IDEA unless you start IDEA from the shell – which few do. It’s easy to fix; this post shows you how.
  • Another from DZone – they’re on fire! – Per-Åke Minborg posted “Overview of Java’s Escape Analysis“, which discusses what escape analysis is (it’s a way of determining the visibility of an object) and what it means for performance. (If an object isn’t used outside of a method or a block, it can be allocated on the stack rather than on the JVM heap – and as fast as the heap can be in Java, the stack is much faster.)
  • Pippo is a new, very small microframework based on services. The example looks … easy enough; take a look, see what you think.
  • Yet one more from DZone: Exceptions in Java: You’re (Probably) Doing It Wrong advocates the use of RuntimeException to get rid of those pesky throws clauses and forced try/catch blocks in your Java code. It’s an argument Spring advocates, and checked exceptions aren’t part of languages like Scala… but I personally find the over-reliance on unchecked exceptions to be terrible. The core argument against check exceptions from the article: “The old argument is that (the use of checked exceptions) “forces” developers to handle exceptions properly. Anyone on a real code base knows that this does not happen, and Exceptions are routinely ignored, or printed out and then ignored. This isn’t some sign of a terrible developer; it is such a common occurrence that it is a sign that checked Exceptions are broken.” Except no, it’s such a common occurrence that it’s a sign that developers are terrible. This article was so terrible that I’ll probably write up a better response as soon as I get some time.

Deep Dive: All about Exceptions


Exceptions are a mechanism for java code to signal extraordinary conditions (such as virtual machine errors like running out of memory, code bugs such as passing a negative number to a method that doesn’t accept negative numbers, alternative ways a method can exit, such as an attempt to read from a network socket aborting because the other end severed the connection, and even intentional control flow such as aborting a thread ASAP). They are similar to signals, if you are familiar with that concept.

Basic mechanism

Exceptions can be thrown anywhere in Java code.
When an exception is thrown, the currently executing line of code is aborted, and the JVM checks if the currently executing line of code is inside of a try block that has an associated catch block that catches the exception (this is known as the exception handler block). If an associated exception handler block exists, execution continues in that block, and the act of throwing the exception is effectively equivalent to break whatever loops you need to break and then go to the exception handler immediately.
If there is no exception handler, the entire method is aborted immediately (the method exits immediately), and the exception ‘bubbles up’ to the next method in the call stack (the method that called the method that just aborted). The process then repeats: Either the caller of the method that threw the exception has an exception handler for it, in which case execution continues there, or it does not, and this method, too, is aborted and now the method that called the method that called the method that threw the exception gets its chance.
This process continues all the way up to the JVM if no code on the call stack has an appropriate exception handler. At the top level, the thread itself will stop execution and echo the exception class name, associated message, stack trace, etc to System.err.

Throwing exceptions

To throw an exception, you use the throw statement, like so:

throw new IllegalArgumentException("foo should be positive");

When throwing an exception, you should usually add a convenient message explaining the situation in plain English, without ending the sentence in a full stop. You don’t have to create a new instance of an exception, but 99+% of the time you throw an exception, you create a new one like in the example. The aim of throwing an exception is usually to abort this method and signal to the caller that the method has finished executing with an unexpected result. In this sense, throw is a lot like return.

Catching exceptions

To catch an exception, you use the try/catch block, like so:

try {
} catch (IllegalArgumentException e) {
    // handle the issue here.

You can add multiple catch blocks to a single try, each catching a different exception type. If an exception does occur in the body of the try block, the first exception handler whose catch line lists an exception type that matches the thrown exception ‘wins’ and code will resume execution there.
If you’re using Java 1.7 or newer (as you should be), you can also list multiple exception types for a single catch block. For example:

try {
} catch (IllegalArgumentException | NullPointerException e) {
    // handle either of those exceptions here.
} catch (IOException e) {
    // And handle I/O issues here.

The exception type hierarchy

All things that you can throw or catch must either be the type java.lang.Throwable or a subtype of it. There are 4 major types you should be aware of:


A subclass of Throwable, Error is used to communicate serious, generally unrecoverable problems with the hardware or JVM itself: the system is out of memory, the jar file containing your classes is corrupt, or you’ve got a method that endlessly calls itself, and the stack has overflowed.
You should generally never throw any Errors yourself, with the possible exception of InternalError which you can throw if a JVM guarantee fails to hold (for example, the JVM specification guarantees that UTF-8 is an available character encoding. If it isn’t, you can throw InternalError).
You should subclass Error and throw it if an invariant is broken that can only be explained by a corrupt installation or failing hardware, such as when you read a data file via .getResourceAsStream that’s packed along with your code, and it’s not there. That’s as catastrophic as a missing class file, which are also handled with errors.
Error, and all subclasses of Error, are so-called ‘unchecked exceptions’ (see below). You rarely catch them.
Note that some errors may not have reliable stack traces, and some (most notable OutOfMemoryError) may indicate the JVM has become unstable.
The usual strategy to handle an Error is to just let the JVM crash. Most Errors thrown in java applications result in the application crashing entirely, and this is intentional, because the problem cannot be solved.


The only other subclass of Throwable in the java.* namespace, this one indicates a more or less ‘expectable’ problem. Anything from unexpected user input to failing network connections to invalid SQL statements – they are generally handled by throwing some subclass of j.l.Exception. You should never throw Exception itself (always a more suitable subclass, and if no such suitable subclass exists, make your own), and, like j.l.Error, don’t catch it unless you are some sort of app server and you’re the final line of defense against a failing servlet, applet, event handler, etc.

Editor’s Note: This is a Java-centric concept; other JVM-based languages like Scala are far less restrictive in how exceptions are handled. Which approach is better for you depends very much on what you’re comfortable with. Using Java’s more restrictive approach is hardly ever a bad thing, but some other languages’ communities look down on it.


This is a subclass of java.lang.Exception and covers a mix of code bugs and unexpected and generally unfixable problems.
Examples (all mentioned exceptions in this list are subclasses of RuntimeException):

  • Whenever you write in java, and x is null, the line throws a NullPointerException.
  • Many methods will throw IllegalArgumentException if you for example pass a negative number to a method that expected only positive numbers.
  • If you try to refer to an array element that is outside of the bounds of that array, an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is thrown. For example: int[] x = new int[10]; print(x[11]);

Like Error, RuntimeException and all subclasses of it are so-called ‘unchecked’.
The usual strategy to handle RuntimeExceptions depends on the exception; for exceptions that signify that you programmed a bug, the appropriate resolution is to just crash the application; the stack trace serves as debugging tool. There are also many runtime exceptions that occurr because of invalid user input (the user entered a word where they were supposed to enter a number) or some other problems for which you can write a resolution; you should catch those.


This gets us back to Throwable itself. You can subclass it, but you should only do that when you use exception as control flow, which is not something you should think about until you have outgrown the need for articles such as these. Until you know a lot better, don’t ever subclass Throwable itself.

Editor’s note, because it bears repeating: You can subclass Throwable, but you should only do that when you use exception as control flow, which is not something you should think about until you have outgrown the need for articles such as these. Until you know a lot better, don’t ever subclass Throwable itself.

Checked vs. Unchecked

As the previous paragraph explained, java.lang.Error and java.lang.RuntimeException, and all subclasses of those two, are known as the ‘unchecked exceptions’. The rest are checked. Those 2 classes are special and listed by name in the Java language specification. You can’t make more unchecked exceptions without subclassing Error, RuntimeException, or some other class that is itself a subclass of one of these two.
Checked exceptions MUST be handled in one of two ways:

  • You wrap the code that is declared to possibly throw one in a try/catch block which catches the checked exception in question, -OR-
  • The method with the code that is declared to possibly throw one, has a ‘throws’ clause that explicitly declares that it throws this exception.

In other words, if you’d like to write throw new IOException("Network connection lost"), then your method signature has to look like: public void myMethod() throws IOException. (IOException is a checked exception). Now code that calls myMethod inherits the requirements to handle it somehow: Either wrap the call to myMethod() in a try/catch block, or also put throws IOException in the method declaration line.
For unchecked exceptions, you have no such requirements. As such, you can throw them without adding that exception to the throws clause. In other words, all methods in all of Java, whether they are specified to do so or not, implicitly act like they have throws Error, RuntimeException tacked onto them. You can add throws NullPointerException to your method declaration if you like; this is meaningless (as NullPointerException is a subtype of RuntimeException and thus unchecked) but some programmers do this as a way to document their code.

Features of Throwable

Stack traces

Whenever any throwable object is created (with new, such as new FileNotFoundException()), the call stack (the chain of method invocations) is stored in the object you just made. A call stack looks something like this:

java.lang.FileNotFoundException: /foo/bar/baz (No such file or directory)
    at Method)
    at Example.main(Example:8)

The actual exception was thrown (with a throw statement) inside the top listed method. That method was invoked by the constructor of FileInputStream, on line 138, that constructor was invoked by another FileInputStream constructor, and that constructor was invoked by our example code.
You can programatically browse the call stack using the .getStackTrace() method of Throwable. Default handlers of execution frameworks will print them to logs or the screen so you can review the problem.
ADVANCED TOPIC: If you wish to ‘save’ a stack trace (for example, because in a different thread at a later time, a problem will surface that was initially caused by the current invocation, but we don’t know yet if that will happen, so we wish to save the stack trace for now and possibly refer to it much later if failure does eventually happen), just create a new exception without actually throwing it (yet).


Often the right approach to handling an exception is to restate the problem in your own exception type, and with a more appropriate message. It helps to staple the original cause to this brand new exception. This is called the ’cause’ and can be attached via the initCause() method. Also, most exception types have a constructor that takes the cause if you have one. The cause will be logged/printed along with the new exception.
Make sure you add the appropriate cause if there is one; it really helps debug issues and figure out what went wrong.

Which exception should I throw?

Before we start, be aware that Java has been around for a long time and believes strongly in not changing already released code. As such, you can find many examples of methods throwing the ‘wrong’ kind of exception in java.* and popular libraries. That’s not ‘proof’ that their style is accepted convention or a good idea.

  • A method must list each checked exception that it might possibly throw, and calling code must then handle it somehow (either with a try/catch block, or by adding a throws clause to the method, passing on the burden of handling the issue to all callers of this method). This is very annoying if the method is ever invoked such that the checked exception couldn’t possibly occur (in the sense of: Having to write code that is literally pointless, therefore impossible to test, and aggravating the author of the code calling yours). Therefore, for all problems that can only occur for invalid input or due to conditions entirely under control of the caller, ALWAYS use unchecked exceptions, that is: subtypes of RuntimeException.
  • The type of the exception is the most important tool that you can give to callers of your code to handle the issue. Therefore, the more likely it is that you expect callers of your method to try/catch your exception, the more important it is to throw an appropriate type. Often, this means you should make your own type. Don’t shy away from this; making your own type (writing public class MyOwnException extends Exception {... in is usually a good idea. When in doubt, make your own exceptions.

  • When different issues can come up but they are related in some way, especially if you expect that a caller might just want to handle all these issues in the exact same manner, you should build an exception hierarchy: One overarching type, with various subtypes of that type for more details. For example, is a subtype of, which is a subtype of java.lang.Exception. If you call any method that may fail due to a file not existing, then FileNotFoundException may occur. You can catch this condition with catch (FileNotFoundException e) {...}, but if you don’t write such a catch block but you do catch all I/O problems with catch (IOException e) {...}, then all file not found problems will also be handled by this more general catch block. This is good API design: You give your caller the flexibility to handle issues as specifically, or as generally, as is appropriate for them. Make hierarchies of exception types if that is applicable.

  • The more likely a problem signaled via an exception can be handled in some appropriate way (other than ‘just crash the application or abort the web request’), the more you should lean towards a checked exception. The more likely a problem cannot be feasibly handled other than by aborting the entire operation, the more you should lean towards an unchecked exception. After all, a checked exception enforces the caller to deal with it, which is just pointless boilerplate if it is highly unlikely that the programmer that calls your method can do anything useful if the problem does occur.


  • To signal that the caller provided invalid input arguments, use RuntimeException subtypes. A few common ones already exist:
    • NullPointerException is appropriate if an argument is null and that is not valid input. The message of the exception should be the name of the argument: if (foo == null) throw new NullPointerException("foo");
    • IndexOutOfBoundsException is appropriate when an index is passed that is out of the valid range.
    • IllegalStateException is appropriate if the object is in a state such that this method call isn’t valid at all. For example, a List class has been ‘locked’ and later a caller attempts to add another object to it.
    • UnsupportedOperationException is appropriate if the object is in a state such that the call isn’t valid, and the object has always been, and will always be, in this state. For example, the add method of a list that is designed to be immutable (all objects that are in it are added during its construction and the list will never change) should throw UnsupportedOperationException.
    • Various other types exist, but if you can’t find anything more appropriate, there’s always IllegalArgumentException. Because these are almost always bugs, you don’t need to make a specific subtype (under the rule: “the less likely it is that callers intend to catch it, the less need there is to make a subclass for it”).
  • To signal I/O errors, be it because of disk failure, network connection failure, or something more exotic, like failure to communicate with a device plugged into a serial port, throw You rarely throw it yourself though; you use APIs that talk to networks (such as HttpServletResponse, or Socket) and the API will throw the IOException for you.

A few examples where common libraries actually got it wrong:

  • NumberFormatException is thrown by Integer.parseInt(), Long.parseLong(), etcetera; these methods parse text input for a number and return it. The exception is thrown if the text passed to the method is not, in fact, a number. This error is both to be expected (users can make mistakes; if talking to another software product, it might be buggy or on some different version), and often handleable, and yet NumberFormatException is a runtime exception. I/O issues are in fact somewhat less recoverable and somewhat less expectable, and yet those are checked exceptions, which is inconsistent.
  • Various methods in the JDK take a string that represents the character encoding. For example, when turning an array of bytes into a string, you should pass in the name of the text encoding that it used. Certain encoding types such as UTF-8 are guaranteed by the Java virtual machine specification to always be available. Still, this code: new String(someByteArray, "UTF-8") is specced to throw UnsupportedEncodingException, which is a checked exception. That exception couldn’t possibly occur unless your JVM is corrupt (at which point you have far bigger problems). Fortunately this has been ‘solved’ in later versions by way of a method specifically designed for calling with known-valid charset names (new String(someByteArray, StandardCharsets.UTF_8)).

  • @SneakyThrows

    Project Lombok is a compiler plugin that adds the ability to ‘ignore’ the rule that you must either try/catch, or declare that you ‘throws’ a checked exception, by annotating your method with @SneakyThrows(IOException.class) for example. This is particularly useful for working around unwieldy APIs, such as the UnsupportedEncodingException example listed above.

    Editor’s note: I heartily endorse the use of Lombok, whose author contributed this article. I rarely work on any Java projects without it now.

    The ‘default’ exception handler

    Some IDEs and many examples use the following default implementation for an exception handler:

    try {
        // Code that throws some exception
    } catch (IOException e) {

    This is a really bad default! You miss the message and the type of exception, and, more importantly, the code will just continue running immediately following the catch block. Most likely another exception will occur soon (given that clearly something is wrong, and in addition a bunch of your code, namely everything in the try block from the place where the exception occurred and onwards) also did not run. If that exception is handled similarly, yet another exception will occur soon. You’ll be faced with a cavalcade of stack traces, most of which are complete red herrings. Your app is also now completely broken, as code continues to execute even though your method has failed and its state is most likely no longer valid.
    Don’t do this!
    The single best default exception handler looks like this:

    try {
        // Code that throws some exception
    } catch (IOException e) {
        throw new RuntimeException("XXTODO: Uncaught", e);

    The exception text makes no bones about it: You’ve intentionally decided not to worry about this exception right now. Your method will also abort instead of continuing to run in an invalid state, and you can throw RuntimeException without having to add a throws clause.

    How to make your own

    If no exception exists that exactly describes the issue you are attempting to signal to your method’s callers, or it is unchecked when you want it to be checked or vice versa, you have to make your own. Fortunately, it is very easy to do this. For example, to make a new unchecked exception, you would write:

    public class MyException extends RuntimeException {
        public MyException(String msg) {
        public MyException(String msg, Throwable cause) {
            super(msg, cause);

    Use a more descriptive name than MyException, of course. You can extend any existing class. If there’s no existing class that seems to make sense, extend Error, Exception, or RuntimeException depending on what kind of exception you want to create.

    The finally construct

    Sometimes you want code to execute to close resources or bring your object back to a valid state, and you want this code to run even if the main body of your method exits via an exception. The finally construct can help here. It’s part of the try syntax, and looks like:

    try {
        // code that might throw an exception
    } catch (NumberFormatException e) {
        // Runs if NumberFormatException occurs in body.
    } finally {
        // Runs always

    In the above example, the code in the finally block is always executed. If the main body (or the catch handler) uses the return statement, your finally code runs right before your method returns. If the try block just gets to the end naturally without an exception occurring, execution jumps to the finally block. If a NumberFormatException occurs, execution jumps to your NumberFormatException catch handler, and after that handler has completed (or if that handler itself throws an exception), your finally block is executed. If some other exception occurs in the try body, then code execution first jumps to your finally block, and once that finishes, the exception is actually ‘thrown’ (execution jumps to the caller and the exception is raised there).
    If your finally block also explicitly exits the method (either via a return statement, or a throw statement), it overrides the explicit method exit that caused your finally block to run. Because that gets very confusing, you should not use return or throw in a finally block.
    A try block needs to have either a catch block or a finally block, or it wouldn’t do anything. However, you don’t need both; just try {} finally {} is valid, for example.
    NB: If a method never exits, for example because it loops endlessly or it has deadlocked, then the finally block would never execute. Also, if the JVM is shut down, either normally (with System.exit(0) for example), or forcibly (killed by the OS, or someone trips over a power cable), your finally blocks don’t run either.

    Automatic Resource Management (‘ARM’)

    Closing resources is a common pattern: Many classes, such as for example, are specified to require the caller of the constructor to eventually call close() on the stream. Failure to do so means the VM will leak resources, and, eventually, it can’t open any more files and the only solution is to restart the VM. Just calling close() when you are done is not sufficient because exceptions exist: You need to use a finally block. Because this is such a common pattern, there’s an easier way to do it, which is legal Java starting with Java v1.7:

    try (FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(path)) {
        // code goes here; it can access 'in'

    In the above snippet, no matter how execution exits the try block (via return statement, by running to the end of it, or via an exception), the resource will be closed.
    Another option is to use project lombok:

    @lombok.Cleanup FileInputStream in = new FileInputStream(path);
    // code goes here

    Here, ‘in’ will be closed when it goes out of scope, for example at the end of the method, no matter how it exits. Lombok’s cleanup works from java v1.6 and up. For more information, see the lombok feature page on @Cleanup.

    How ‘checkedness’ is javac only.

    The concept of checked exceptions are twofold:

    • You cannot catch a checked exception unless at least one thing in the associated try block is declared to throw that exception.
    • If any line is declared to throw a checked exception, then this line must exist either inside of a try block with an associated catch handler for this checked exception, or, the method it is in must have declared this checked exception in its throws line.

    However, these 2 rules are applied only by the Java compiler (javac). The actual JVM treats all exceptions as unchecked; bytecode that throws a checked exception without declaring it does so / catching it, will run just fine, and, at the bytecode level, you can have a catch handler for a checked exception that can’t actually occur and the JVM will run it. This is why other languages that also compile to class files but which don’t have checked exceptions can work at all, and it’s also what makes lombok’s @SneakyThrows tick.

    Catching (and implementing) exceptions


    In a previous article on Using exceptions correctly, exception propagation was explained: use runtime exceptions for situations in which the code is incorrect, and use checked exceptions for situations for which there is a valid recovery path internal to the application.
    This article deals with two other things you will have to do with exceptions: catching them and implementing them. And in order to do both, you have to know about exception classes themselves…

    Java’s Exception Classes

    At the core of all exceptions is a class called Throwable. It is the superclass for both Exception and Error. (OutOfMemoryError is an example of an Error.)
    The truth of the matter is you should probably never encounter code which directly handles (or throws!) a Throwable which is not also an Exception, but you should know that it exists. You never know: some inexperienced programmer might add it to his or her exception handling, and then you’d have to clean up their code.
    The Exception class itself is the base class for all checked exceptions. When you want to create custom exceptions, you will probably want to extend this one (or a more specialized version: IOException, for instance).
    The RuntimeException class Is the base class for all unchecked exceptions. If you browse the JDK javadoc, you will notice that all such niceties as the infamous NullPointerException (NPE for short), but also IllegalArgumentException, IndexOutOfBoundsException, etc., are all subclasses of RuntimeException.
    But there’s a catch (pun intended): RuntimeException is also a subclass of Exception. This has an often overlooked consequence on catch statements, see below.

    Catching, and the importance of exception inheritance

    Since exceptions are Java classes like any other, exception classes which you can catch may inherit from other exception classes. This has an influence on how you catch them. For starters…

    Catch more specific exceptions first

    Let us take an example of a method doing filesystem operations using the java.nio.file API. Such operations can fail at two levels:

    • Filesystem-level errors; the exception defined by the JDK for such errors is FileSystemException.
    • I/O errors; in this case you will probably get an IOException instead.

    From the javadoc links above, you may have noticed that FileSystemException inherits IOException. Provided you want to treat both exceptions differently, you must catch FileSystemException first:

    try {
    } catch (FileSystemException e) {
        // deal with filesystem level errors
    } catch (IOException e) {
        // deal with I/O errors

    As an added benefit, you get to access all methods defined in FileSystemException (getFile(), etc) which IOException does not define, allowing you to (for instance) construct much more detailed error messages.
    If, instead, your code was:

    try {
    } catch (IOException e) {
        // deal with it
    } catch (FileSystemException e) {
        // NEVER REACHED!

    As explained, you will never get to deal with FileSystemExceptions separately – the more general IOException will match and its exception-handling block called, instead.

    Catching Exception is dangerous…

    Remember what was said earlier? RuntimeException inherits Exception. As such, if you simply catch Exception, you also get to catch all unchecked exceptions!
    You don’t want to do that, of course… But just in case, if you want to (or, preferrably, need to) have a “one size fits all” catch block, here is an idiom you can use which will “correctly” propagate all unchecked exceptions (reminder: since they are unchecked, you needn’t declare that your method throws them):

    try {
        // some exception-heavy code throwing many exceptions
    } catch (RuntimeException oops) {
        // Unchecked exception: rethrow!
        throw oops;
    // deal with specific exceptions if possible...
    // then:
    catch (Exception e) {
        // One size fits all

    Well, that’s one idiom; a better way to deal with exception-heavy code is to simply reduce the amount of code in your try blocks so that the amount of exceptions you have to deal with is limited.
    Alternatively, you can use multicatch.

    “Multicatch” (since Java 7)

    Editor’s Note: if you’re not on Java 7 by now, you should attempt to upgrade. Java 6 has been end-of-lifed, and it has a support lifecycle that’s not likely to be available for most users. Java 7’s been out for years, people. It’s time.

    Again, in the situation where you have to deal with “exception-heavy” try blocks, you have another tool since Java 7 allowing you to treat a given set of exceptions with the same code. So, instead of, for instance, writing:

    try {
        // something
    } catch (E1 e) {
        // do x with e
    } catch (E2 e) {
        // do x with e
    // etc

    You can instead write:

    try {
        // something
    } catch (E1 | E2 e) { // | E3 | ...
        // do x with e

    Implementing your own exceptions: some rules

    Exceptions are regular Java classes. This means that there is more to exception classes than .getMessage(), as we saw with FileSystemException.
    Therefore, if you feel the need to, do not hesitate to add methods to your custom exception classes.
    However, try to avoid extending Exception directly. The JDK defines plenty of exception classes which can serve as a useful basis for your own exception classes; for instance, if you want to relay an I/O error of your own, you will probably want to extend IOException instead.
    Double check whether the exception class you extend inherits RuntimeException… If it does, you have just created an unchecked exception class. Is this what you want?

    Side note: implementing “throwing methods”…

    When implementing a method which is declared to throw an exception class, the implementation can choose to throw a subclass of this exception. So, for instance, if you have an abstract method to implement declared as:

    // Reminder: all declared methods in an interface are "public abstract" by default
    void foo() throws SomeException;

    … and you have a custom exception MyException which extends SomeException, then you can implement it as such:

    // Note the declared exception...
    void foo() throws MyException { /* whatever */ }

    This is demonstrated by the JDK with AutoCloseable and Closeable: Closeable extends AutoCloseable. The close() method of AutoCloseable is declared to simply throw Exception, whereas its override in Closeable is declared to throw IOException.

    Final words…

    Hopefully, this article and the quoted article in the introduction should have provided you with enough tools, knowledge and recipes so that you are confident when it comes to dealing with exceptions in Java — whether that be in your own code, or when using other people’s code.
    Happy (and fruitful) coding…

    Use exceptions correctly

    In this article we are going to address the common misuse of exceptions, more specifically those times when programmers fail to correctly propagate exceptions. Along the way, and most of this article, we will talk about the differences between runtime and checked exceptions and the ways in which it is appropriate to use them.

    Runtime exceptions

    There are two main differences between checked, or “normal,” exceptions, and runtime exceptions:

    • Runtime exceptions don’t have to be mentioned in a method’s signature, and the compiler doesn’t warn about them.
    • The compiler doesn’t require that runtime exceptions are caught.

    This means that when a runtime exception is thrown it has the potential to propagate to the JVM without any prior warning, thus crashing the application. This makes runtime exceptions bad for managing errors that are recoverable, and great for failing the application for errors that are irrecoverable such as defective code.

    Checked exceptions

    Checked exceptions are different from runtime exceptions in that:

    • Checked exceptions have to be mentioned in a method’s signature.
    • Checked exceptions have to be caught, or the code will not compile. (Exception handling is forced by the specification and compiler.)

    This means that checked exceptions never propagate up to the JVM and cannot crash your application unless you have deliberately allowed it by including them in your main method’s signature. This makes checked exceptions great for managing errors that are recoverable, and bad for errors that are irrecoverable. Who would want to keep catching exceptions that they can do absolutely nothing about? (Answer: nobody.)

    The meaning of “recovery” from errors

    “Recovery” means different things to different people (and situations, and applications).
    Imagine that we are trying to connect to a server and the server is not responding. It’s possible to recover from the resulting exception by connecting to a different server, given that it has the same capabilities of the server to which we originally tried to connect.
    This will achieve the original goal, thus we have recovered from the error.
    This is not exactly what recovery means in this context — if it’s possible to make such recovery as was mentioned in the illustration, then by all means you should do it.
    However, recovery could also be displaying an alert dialog to the user that describes the incident, or perhaps sending an email to an administrator, or even simply logging the error to a log file. All of these options qualify as ‘recovery’ – taking a valid and known course of action in the event of an exception.

    Using the correct exception type

    With this information about the nature of exceptions and a workable definition of “recovery” in mind, the de facto standards in industry regarding exception handling make sense, and have evidently been practiced in the JVM and the Java runtime library itself:

    • If the cause of the error is because the code is incorrect, throw a runtime exception.
    • If the cause of the error is because of state while the code is correct, throw a checked exception.

    The reason for this is that if the code is correct, the matter is very likely to be recoverable.
    Examples include situations where you try to connect to a server without an internet connection — there is no need to crash the app. A gentle way to deal with the error is to display an error dialog that explains what happened, allowing the user to fix their connection, given a clear enough message.
    If the error is in the code, and the program itself is defective, then writing a recovery path is irrelevant — how can you recover from a problem that you don’t even know exists yet? Or if you do know what the problem is, then why write a recovery path at all instead of fixing the problem?
    Runtime exception examples
    The following is an error for which a runtime exception is appropriate:

    float nan = 1 / 0;

    This will throw a division by zero exception. It is appropriate because the only means of fixing this issue is to modify the code, it is not dependent on any external state.
    Here’s another example, a portion of HashMap‘s constructor:

    public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " + initialCapacity);
        if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
            initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " + loadFactor);
        // more irrelevant code

    In the case presented above it is also appropriate to throw runtime exceptions, because it is not logically sound to construct a hash map with negative capacity, or a load factor that is not a positive number. This error is not due to something that was transmitted over the network, the state of a file or the disk, user input, or any other external state — it’s because a calculation is wrong, or the flow is inappropriate in that it permitted these values. Either way — it’s the code that has to be fixed.
    Checked exception example
    The following is a rather common example of “exception handling,” often written by programmers who think that they’re following Spring‘s example:

    public Data dataAccessCode(){
        try {
            // ..some code that throws SQLException
        } catch(SQLException ex) {
            throw new RuntimeException(ex);

    Honestly, the frustration of a person who would take part in such an abomination is understandable. What can they possibly do in that method to deal with an SQL exception? It’s an exception in the database, there are no means of “recovery,” and this scope is probably incapable of accessing the UI to display an error dialog. Some more sophisticated evil-doers solve this by doing something of this sort:

    public Data dataAccessCode() {
        try {
            // ..some code that throws SQLException
        } catch(SQLException ex) {
            // TODO: add internationalization?
              "We don't know what you're trying to do, but uhh, can't access data. Sorry.", ex);

    This does perform a certain effort at recovery, however it may not always be the correct recovery that is appropriate for the grander scheme, nor is it necessary evil. The correct way to solve this is to simply not handle the exception in this scope, and propagate the exception:

    public Data dataAccessCode() throws SQLException {
        // ..some code that throws SQLException

    This way, the code is not even “uglified” and it allows for the possibility of recovery by the caller, which is more aware of the grander scheme of things:

    public void loadDataAndShowUiBecauseUserClickedThatButton() {
        try {
            Data data = dataAccessCode();
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            // This method’s scope can do UI, so we don't need sorcery to show an error dialog.
            // messages is an internationalized ResourceBundle.

    Ending notes

    Exceptions are a wonderful feature; it is worthwhile to use them. Don’t invent your own ways to handle and propagate errors; you’ll have less trouble and better results if you stick to the idiom instead of fighting with the platform that you are using.